Posted in Reading-writing, Real Analytic Geometry

## Classical Lojasiewicz inequalities

Let ${f : \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}}$ be a real analytic function with ${f(0) = 0}$. Let ${V := \{x \in \mathbb{R}^n | f(x) = 0\}}$ and ${K}$ be a compact subset in ${\mathbb{R}^n}$. Then the (classical) \L ojasiewicz inequality asserts that:

• There exist ${c > 0, \alpha > 0}$ such that

$\displaystyle |f(x)| \ge cd(x, V)^\alpha\quad \text{for}\ x \in K.\ \ \ \ \ (1)$

\noindent Let ${f : \mathbb{R}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}}$ be a real analytic function with ${f(0) = 0}$ and ${\nabla f(0) = 0}$. The \L ojasiewicz gradient inequality asserts that:

• There exist ${C > 0, \rho \in [0, 1)}$ and a neighbourhood ${U}$ of ${0}$ such that

$\displaystyle \|\nabla f(x)\| \ge C|f(x)|^\rho\quad \text{for}\ x \in U.\ \ \ \ \ (2)$

As a consequence, in (1), the order of zero of an analytic function is finite, and if ${f (x)}$ is close to ${0}$ then ${x}$ is close to the zero set of ${f}$. However, if ${K}$ is not compact, the latter is not always true and the inequality (1) does not always hold. The inequality (2) is similar to (1), it is not true in the case of $K$ is non-compact.

Two inequalities (1) and (2) have some special cases. For example, in the inequality (1), if ${f}$ has only isolated zero, i.e. ${V = f^{-1}(0) = \{(0, 0, \dots, 0)\}}$, this implies ${d(x, V) = \|x\|}$. Hence, we have

$\displaystyle |f(x)| \ge C\|x\|^\alpha, \text{for}\ x\in K.$

On the other hand, being different from (2), we have another inequality:

$\displaystyle \|\nabla f(x)\| \ge c\|x\|^\beta, \text{for}\ x \in U.$

There are some relations between ${\alpha, \beta}$ and ${\rho}$ in complex case and real cases…

Posted in Learning, Real Analytic Geometry

## Curve selection lemma

There are many versions of the curve selection lemma.

In o-minimal structures, we have to consider definable curves, definable functions, deinable sets,… The definition of definable sets,… we can find in many documents.

Let $fr(A)$ be frontier of $A$, ie $fr(A) = \bar{A} - A$. We have:

Curve selection lemma: In the o-minimal structure $\mathcal{O}$. If $x \in fr(A)$, then there is a definable map $\gamma: [0, 1) \to \mathbb{R}^n$ such that $\gamma(0,1) \subset A$ and $\gamma(0) = x$.

Posted in Real Analytic Geometry

## Puiseux series

In this note, we discuss about Puiseux series and its appearance when we solve the equation $f(x,y) = 0$. We refer to the book “Algebraic curves” of R.Walker.

Puiseux series are fractional power series:

$\bar{a}(x)= a_1x^{\frac{m_1}{n_1}}+a_2x^{\frac{m_2}{n_2}}+ \dots$ where $a_i \ne 0, m_1/n_1 < m_2/n_2 < \dots$.

Order of series: $O(\bar{a}(x)) = m_1/n_1$.

Theorem. $K(x)^*$ is algebraically closed.

($K(x)^*$ – the fieldof fractional power series).

By the proof of this theorem, we can see that $f(x,y) = 0$ (an algebraic curve), we can solve $\bar{y}(x)$ (Puiseux series) such that $f(x, \bar{y}) = 0$.

Posted in Learning, Real Analytic Geometry

## Nullstellensatz in the real case

In alegebraic geometry, we have Hilbert Nullstellensatz and in real algebraic geometry we have Real Nullstelllensatz. There is a difference between these theorems.

Strong Hilbert Nullstellensatz: $I(V_{\mathbb{C}}(I)) = \sqrt{I}$.

If polynomial $f$ is vanish on the set $\begin{cases}f_1 &= 0 \\ &\dots \\ f_k &= 0\end{cases}$ (in $\mathbb{C}^n$) then $f$ has  the following form:

$f \in\sqrt{I}$, that is: $\exists m \in \mathbb{N}: f^m = g_1f_1 + \dots + g_kf_k$ với $g_j \in \mathbb{R}[X_1, \dots,X_n]$.

In the case of $\mathbb{R}^n$

Real Nullstellensatz: $I(V_{\mathbb{R}}(I)) = \sqrt[\mathbb{R}]{I}$.

$V_{\mathbb{C}}(I) \cap \mathbb{R}^n = V_{\mathbb{R}}(I)$:

$f^{2s} \in -(\sum \mathbb{R}[X]^2 + I)$  or $f^{2s} + \sum_{j =1}^m p_j^2 = h_1f_1 + \dots + h_kf_k$.